Cartridges may be further divided into (1) those that are shot in a rifle and (2) those that are shot in a shotgun, and this latter kind are called shells, whether they are loaded or unloaded.
While a cartridge has a primer and is loaded with powder and a bullet as we have seen above, the shell for a shotgun has a primer that is fixed in what is called a battery-cup; next a charge of powder is put in the shell and two or three wads of felt are forced down on top of the powder.
The shot is then poured in on top of the wads, a cardboard wad is put on top of the shot and the shell is crimped, that is turned down to hold the last wad in place. All shells for shotguns are of the center-fire kind.
Now, there are two kinds of shells used, namely (a) those in which the shell proper, or containing case, is made entirely of brass, and (6) those in which the head of the shell is made of brass and the case is made of paper. The paper shells are just about as good if they are handled carefully and are very much cheaper.
Collins, A. Frederick. Shooting, for Boys,. New York: Moffat, Yard and, 1917. Print.
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