GLANDERS. The transition is ready from a highly inflamed state to ulcerating condition, whence we can account for the mutation of the farcy into glanders. The general symptoms of glanders, are, a discharge, mostly from the left nostril, seldom from the right, and sometimes from both. The running at first is inconsiderable, and in substance resembles the white of an egg. The membrane within the nostril is unusually red; the swelling of the glands or kernels under the jaw, and between the parts of the lower jaw, is almost invariably observable on the same side as the infected nostril. In other respects, the animal exhibits every appearance of soundness, as regard its appetite, condition, spirits, &c. The urine is generally crude and transparent. Glanders are not unfrequently accompanied by a cutaneous disease, of a scorbutic character, called farcin or farcy. Glanders may be divided into two stages, namely, 1. the acute, or rapid violent stage; and, 2. the chronic, or slow mild stage. The acute glanders are frequently accompanied by acute farcy; in that case, large painful tumours in various parts, ulcers about the face, neck, or lips appear; also inflammation and ulceration of the fore or hind legs, testicles, and sheath. In short, when the disease has arrived at this frightful stage, all hopes of cure are gone, and it would be an act of humanity to destroy the suffering animal at once, and release him from torture. It would also be the wisest plan, in order to prevent farther contagion amongst other horses.— Chronic glanders are of an opposite character, and in the early stages, so mild in their progress, that the health, condition, or appetite of the horse is not at all affected. If the animal be well kept, and moderately worked, he may continue a useful servant to his owner many years. The symptoms of chronic glanders, in their advanced stages, are ulcers inside the nostrils, which, if too high up to he visible, may be known to exist from the suppurated running that drops from the nose; sometimes it exudes in such quantities, and is of so sticky and thick a substance, that it adheres to the orifice of the nostrils and upper lip, so as frequently to impede free nasal respiration, and cause the animal to snuffle and snore. Sometimes the matter has a sanguineous appearance, and if the animal be overworked, in this advanced stage of the disorder, he will often bleed profusely from the nose- If, in the mild or early stage of chronic glanders, blood flow from the nose, or the matter have a foul smell, it is a sure signal of the second stage coming on; consequently, the running flows more copiously, and becomes more offensive; the glands under the jaw increase in size and hardness, and adhere close to the jaw-bone. Matter appears also in the inner corners of the eyes. The horse falls off in condition, has a constant inclination to stool, coughs violently, and in a short time death closes the sufferings of the poor animal.
Harewood, Harry. A Dictionary of Sports. London: T. Tegg and son, 1835.
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