I would like to see an explanation of the systems used to measure the caliber of rifles and shotguns and what is meant by the terms 12gauge, 20-gauge, .30-30, .30-40, .32-40-165, .45-70. .45-90, 8 mm. and 9 mm?
The method of designating the caliber or size of shotguns was established years ago. when all rifles and guns were of smooth bore and fired round bullets. A 12-gauge gun then shot a ball twelve of which weighed one pound, a 16-gauge ball weighed sixteen to the pound and so on Rifles in this country are measured in hundredths of an inch. Thus a .50 caliber means fifty hundredths of an inch or half an inch. When designating rifle calibers by figures the first represent its bore or caliber, the second the number of grains of powder, and the third the weight of the bullet. Thus the terms .32-40-165 means a .32 caliber, 40 grains of powder and a 165-grain bullet. In foreign countries where the meter or metric system is used for measurement instead of inches and feet, rifle calibers are expressed in millimeters. Expressed in their equivalent of hundredths of an inch 8 mm. is a .31 caliber and 9 mm. is a .35 caliber.
Fur, News. Fur News, January 1916.
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